The art was introduced (c.1510) into Tudor England, probably by the Florentine sculptor Torrigiano.
In the districts of SE England, where good stone is lacking, important country mansions (such as Layer Marney and Sutton Place) had ornamental detail of molded terra-cotta; on Hampton Court, Wolsey employed Italian workmen, who produced portrait medallions and other decorations of merit.
In addition to magnificent doorway tympana and decorative medallions, especially the series of Madonna compositions, they used terra-cotta for tombs, fountains, and altars.
The material was also favored for bozzetti, or sculptors' sketches, as well as for large pieces.
[Ital.,=baked earth], form of hard-baked pottery, widely used in the decorative arts, especially as an architectural material, either in its natural red-brown color, or painted, or with a baked glaze.
The prevalence of terra-cotta as a medium of artistic expression since the earliest periods of history is indicated by statuettes and vases from predynastic Egypt, polychrome tiles from Assyria and Persia, vases and figures from various Central American pre-Columbian sites, and Chinese vases dating probably from 3000 B. Terra-cotta first gained importance as an architectural material in classical Greece, where, beginning about the 7th cent. C., temples and other structures were often enriched with roof tiles, metopes, acroteria, and various other modeled and painted ornamental features of terra-cotta.
Another sample, however, showed a larger peak at 365°C and could not be dated because of serious fading.
Five samples of pottery sherds exhibited peak TL at about 275°C and 395°C gave the TL age ranged from 2.13 ± 0.14 ka to 2.25 ± 0.14 ka and a mean TL age of 2.20 ± 0.15 ka, with a good plateau in the range of 290–400°C.Hollow blocks or tiles of rough terra-cotta are used extensively as a structural material for walls and partitions, for floor arches, and for fireproofing.In modern practice terra-cotta is manufactured from carefully selected clays, which, combined with water and vitrifying ingredients, are put through a pug mill or other device to reduce the mass to homogeneity.The towns of Lombardy, Emilia, and Venetia are rich in brick buildings (e.g., the Certosa di Pavia, begun 1396) that are decorated with a profusion of molded terra-cotta detail, such as cornices, stringcourses, window frames, and other exterior ornament.Similarly, the 14th- and 15th-century brick Gothic buildings of N Germany, especially of the district around Brandenburg, had lavish displays of molded terra-cotta.The delicate tracery and other Gothic details of the Church of St.