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The need to prepare national mire protection programmes became evident in 1960s This urgent need was created by a wide forestry draining programme financed by World bank. The result of that was a mire protection programme to Southern Finnish State land. Soon it was understood that the protection plan should be extended to private mires (Hyrinen & Ruuhijrvi 1968, Keltikangas 1969, Ruuhijrvi 1970). Later the protection programme was made also to the mires in Northern Finland (Hyrinen & Ruuhijrvi 1969).

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Nationally only 5 % of endangered species are mire species, because in Lapland there are still much intact mires, but to the south of Polar Circle, 25 % of regionally endangered plant species are mire plants (Heikkil 1995). (Referat: Untersuchungen uber das Vorkommen der Fichte (Picea excelsa) als Unerwuchs in der Finnischen Staatswlder von Grenz-Karelien.

Threats for mires There are several rare mire vegetation types, e.g.

remaining rich fens, which are in danger of being destroyed in the near future due to drying up because of ditchings in the surroundings.

Up till now, draining of pristine mires has almost ceased, and most activities are concentrated on the maintaining of ditches in peatland forests. The results will help or prioritize decision making. In the Slendet Nature Reserve in the eastern part of central Norway, an area of 160 ha has been restored as a former hay-making fen; the area has been regularly mown for the last three decades.

As a part of peatland forestry, forestry roads have covered about 35 000 ha of mires (Lappalainen & Hnninen 1993). (eds.) 1992: Uhanalaisten elinten ja kasvien seurantatoimikunnan mietint. The assessment will help and guideline inventories, research, restoration, management, monitoring and protection. Slendet is now an important reference site for knowledge about the effect of scything (Moen 1990).

However, there are still a number of valuable mires for protection, threatened by peat mining. The types are always abstracts, but the type system makes it possible to compare different situations in the field and is thus a decision making tool.

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