The unsolicited sending of bulk email for commercial purposes (spam) is unlawful in some jurisdictions. Phishing emails may contain links to other websites that are affected by malware.Or, they may contain links to fake online banking or other websites used to steal private account information.According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, cyber-extortionists are increasingly attacking corporate websites and networks, crippling their ability to operate and demanding payments to restore their service.More than 20 cases are reported each month to the FBI and many go unreported in order to keep the victim's name out of the public domain. Department of Defense (Do D) notes that the cyberspace has emerged as a national-level concern through several recent events of geo-strategic significance.Perpetrators typically use a distributed denial-of-service attack. Among those are included, the attack on Estonia's infrastructure in 2007, allegedly by Russian hackers.
There are also hacking activities directed towards individuals, families, organized by groups within networks, tending to cause fear among people, demonstrate power, collecting information relevant for ruining peoples' lives, robberies, blackmailing etc.The extent to which these communications are unlawful varies greatly between countries, and even within nations.It is a sensitive area in which the courts can become involved in arbitrating between groups with strong beliefs.There are also problems of privacy when confidential information is intercepted or disclosed, lawfully or otherwise. Jaishankar further define cybercrime from the perspective of gender and defined 'cybercrime against women' as "Crimes targeted against women with a motive to intentionally harm the victim psychologically and physically, using modern telecommunication networks such as internet and mobile phones".Internationally, both governmental and non-state actors engage in cybercrimes, including espionage, financial theft, and other cross-border crimes.The content of websites and other electronic communications may be distasteful, obscene or offensive for a variety of reasons.