The diagnostic categories of DSM-IV-TR are essentially symptom-based, or, as the manual puts it, based "on criteria sets with defining features." Another term that is sometimes used to describe this method of classification is phenomenological .A phenomenological approach to classification is one that emphasizes externally observable phenomena rather than their underlying nature or origin.The biological treatment of paraphilic disorders, then, is of paramount importance for psychiatry and society at large.Three categories of pharmacologic agents commonly used to treat paraphilic disorders are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, synthetic steroidal analogs, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs.
By their very nature, some paraphilic disorders may predispose an individual to commit sexual offenses.
According to the DSM-IVTR, the system is also intended to "promote the application of the biopsychosocial model in clinical, educational and research settings." The reference to the biopsychosocial model is significant, because it indicates that the DSM-IV-TR does not reflect the view of any specific "school" or tradition within psychiatry regarding the cause or origin (also known as "etiology") of mental disorders.
In other words, the DSM-IV-TR is atheoretical in its approach to diagnosis and classification— the axes and categories do not represent any overarching theory about the sources or fundamental nature of mental disorders.
By the early 1890s Kraepelin's handbook was used in medical schools across Europe.
He updated and revised it periodically to accommodate new findings, including a disease that he named after one of his clinical assistants, Alois Alzheimer.
Despite this, some authors have proposed treatment algorithms for individuals with paraphilic disorders of varying severity.